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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

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adolescent
It will be interesting to see which direction they go at the trade deadline. They have a handful of solid players along with Brook Lopez.
Against: It might be that bit too far from the mainstream to make a huge awards impact.

Sixty Vocab:
Nothing tops the insensitivity and stupendous lack of awareness as Lohan's insensitive post five months ago.
中国就业促进会副会长陈宇表示,虽然创业意义重大,但是我们不应该对此有太高的期望值。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

环保家居建材消费旺盛

In 2018, more business leaders will channel a potent combination of digitalisation, generational change and growing diversity, to streamline their hierarchies, distribute responsibility, and transform their organisations.
adj. 方便的,便利的
China's 2016 office box sales are expected to exceed the 2015 total of 44 billion yuan (6.8 billion U.S. dollars), the country's film watchdog said.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

你一直感到压力很大
After weeks of rumors, Phil Jackson failed to move Carmelo Anthony and Derrick Rose, two players who absolutely should have been traded for the long-term benefit of the franchise.
He also has serious thrill issues dude.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • President Xi Jinping is also a well-known football fan, who has repeatedly voiced his support for the sport's development in China.
  • 河北钢铁日减产820万吨
  • A chain connects the umbrella to a collar or harness.
  • 建材家居市场:深化服务意识 提升运营能力
  • 2015橱柜十大品牌最新排名
  • The work suits Carlson who has been into singing and musical theater her whole life.
    我们错了——最终睾丸还是与免疫系统有关联的。研究人员发现了“一扇非常小的门”使睾丸可以向免疫系统发送单向信号,这解释了为什么一些男性会被不孕症所困扰,也解释了某些癌症疫苗一直失败的原因。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 抄袭、环保问题困扰行业 智能化成家具产品未来发展趋势, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

五年内我国水性涂料预计占比将可达20%

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

楼面地价每方近8万 房子到底要卖给谁?

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • A research team at the University of Chicago has solved this problem, producing hands that send electric signals to the brain. They've begun with monkeys as test subjects, studying the animals to see how their brains respond to touch. When outfitted with prosthetic hands that stimulate their brains that way, the monkeys respond just as though they physically touch objects themselves.
    TextPride是一门不错的生意,就是规模太小。与此同时,短信应用市场正在爆炸式增长。Facebook公司斥资190亿美元并购了WhatsApp,这款产品的每月活跃用户现已达到7亿人。拥有2.5亿注册用户的应用Tango目前市值15亿美元。Kik拥有2亿注册用户。Snapchat价值100亿美元,拥有一亿用户。Kik赞助的一项新研究表明,美国用户现在花在短信应用上的平均时间要多于社交网络应用。不过唯一的问题是,这些短信应用需要找到赚钱的手段,目前广告主还没找到靠谱的方式插入朋友间的聊天之中。
  • 截至2016年底,中国仍有4300万农村地区的人口生活在贫困状态下。中国的目标是在2020年时帮助他们脱贫。
    n. 批准,认可,同意,赞同
    我们完全有能力扩大就业,不会也不允许出现大规模群体性失业。
    JINX: THE LIFE AND DEATHS OF ROBERT DURST (HBO, Feb. 8) Andrew Jarecki (“Capturing the Friedmans”) directed this six-part documentary series with the cooperation of Mr. Durst, the New York real estate scion linked to several killings and the unsolved disappearance of his first wife.
    然而一般情况下,你只需注意洗衣机是否停止发出噪声就能来判断洗衣服是否结束。另外你也只要抬头一看外面的天气或者看一下天气预报app,就能知道是否会下雨了。因此,这个产品基本上只是一种黑客进入你家的方式。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 广州:月租4500元以下的房源占比七成
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 养老保险费率降至16% 减轻企业社保负担

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Song “Taste of China” (Phoenix Legend)
That feeling of success may have provided a sort of identity in itself.
This so-called “playground for millionaires” is now open to everyone. The wallet-friendly hotels, guesthouses and self-catering apartments make tours affordable. With more than 100 divine islands scattered on the Indian ocean, many activities await, such as sunbathing, fishing, diving, sailing, and going on boat tours. The Seychelles islands are blessed with a warm tropical climate all year round, so you can go there whenever you want.
《新财富》预计,2025年左右,中国首富将追平美国首富的个人财富,并有实力问鼎全球首富。
爱德华卢斯(Edward Luce)
Am I tempting fate by wondering if the Lakers end up in this conversation within a couple weeks? They'd have to go on a truly epic slide to be bad enough to keep their draft pick at this rate (top-three protected to Philly) but I think the question is whether they should continue to build slowly around this core or flip one or two of the young dudes for a star.
在本届戛纳电影节上,女性电影制作人以及相关女性话题曾广受关注成为宣传主题。28年来,戛纳首次以女导演拍摄的电影拉开序幕,伊莎贝拉?罗西里尼(Isabella Rossellini)成为“一种关注”单元评审团主席,莎尔玛?海雅克(Salma Hayek)主持讨论会高调探讨女性角色在电影中的意义。可以讨论的话题有许多,但是真的有何改变吗?数字似乎更能说明问题,主竞赛单元的19部入围作品仅有2部来自女性导演。而后发生的“高跟鞋门”,更有.....面对外界对于影展涉嫌性别歧视的负面消息,艺术总监蒂埃里?弗雷莫(Thierry Frémaux)一点儿反应都没。他只是说,戛纳电影节的举办有着及其不公平的高标准,参展影片不能申请其他诸如威尼斯或柏林电影节。这难道是建议人们去“攻击奥斯卡”?

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Rated 6.4 points out of 10 on the review website, some users said the drama focused too much on romance.
  • 地板行业专家提醒:“三假”当道 假实木地板横行
  • 不会。事情可能会这样发展:在一次试运营(其间出现多次交易停止)后,比特币期货将慢慢开始吸引机构资金。美国商品期货交易委员会(CFTC)的持仓数据将反映出资金管理公司对该产品存在的长期偏见。随着减仓的巨额成本变得不言自明,多头将越来越大声地抱怨围绕结算时间的例行分歧。就在参议院计划举行听证会调查潜在的市场操纵行为时,比特币期货价格将跌破现货价格,引发抛售。
    All or most of the municipal government's departments will move, as the office buildings are scheduled to be completed that year.
  • 7月百城新房价格出炉 部分省会城市房价下降
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 凯特 阿普顿
    The Veterans Day holiday, which pays tribute to all men and women who have served in the U.S. military, dates back to 1919, when President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed November 11 as Armistice Day to celebrate the end of fighting exactly one year earlier in World War One - "the war to end all wars" - between Germany and the allied nations of Britain, France and the United States. The armistice famously went into effect at "the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month."
  • 74个重点城市细颗粒物(PM2.5)年均浓度下降9.1%;
    201505/375574.shtml
  • Central China's Hubei province surpassed Hebei province for the first time to rank 7th with 3.2 trillion yuan, up 8.1 percent.
    许多管理者提到了一些极其失礼的情况。求职者:
  • 创始人的心态将为公司定下基调。消极、懒惰和理所应当的心态,不仅浪费时间和金钱,还会损害你的信誉。成功很大程度上取决于能否在犯错后从容地接受批评。直面挑战可以让一位普通的公司老板变成真正的领导者。
    CEO:作为汽车业新人,通用CEO玛丽o芭拉和福特CEO马克o菲尔兹开始密切观注菲亚特和克莱斯勒集团CEO的塞尔吉奥o马基奥尼的一举一动。虽然他的商业帝国横跨欧美两个大陆,但马基奥尼还是成功地把公司的美国市场份额提高了1.2个点,完全没有受到公司最弱的一条产品线以及八速变速箱问题的影响。
    另外,Dua Lipa想要冲击三个奖项的,最后拿到了最佳艺人奖。虽然Harry Styles可能是One Direction最时尚的成员之一,但这位具有时代标志的歌手的皇冠意外地被MTV EMA的新人和前乐队的伴侣ZAYN抢走了。
  • He was under the impression people clicking on the adverts would earn him money. But instead he was charged every time someone clicked on the link.
    3. Smart laundry peg
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 一带一路沿线国家成2016北京春季房展海外展区主力军 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

“双降”有望提振家居板块整体估值

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

高校毕业生租房需慎签合同分清“订金”与“定金”

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

京沪深500万住房占比超三成 单价10万楼盘增10倍

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

2020年湖南全省建筑垃圾资源化利用率35%以上

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 亚太地区是地区国家共有的家园,我们不希望、也不愿意看到冷战思维下所谓“选边站队”的事情发生。
  • Exports shrank 6.1 per cent year on year in dollar terms to $209.42bn in December, according to figures from the General Administration of Customs. That fall was 2.1 percentage points more severe than a median of economist estimates and worse than a revised drop of 1.6 per cent (previously 0.1 per cent growth) in November.
  • 定制家具难称心 应细签合同

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 因为中国严格的政策,该内衣品牌的几位最有名的模特无法出席今年最重要的活动,上周吉吉·哈迪德就在推特上表示她不会出席此次维密秀。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 根据电影监管机构数据显示,中国电影票房销售额在去年同比了增长48.7%
    But what will politicians actually do While President Trump is focused on bringing back traditional manufacturing jobs to America, different US states are experimenting with other policies to help low-paid precarious workers. These range from sharply higher minimum wages to new rules to stop employers changing staff schedules at the last minute.
    May its blessings lead into a wonderful year for you and all whom you hold dear.祝福你及你所爱的人新的一年中万事如意。
  • After China hawk Steve Bannon’s exit there was a temptation to proclaim the death of the Trump White House’s economic nationalism. But that ignored the presence of Donald Trump, who is instinctually a protectionist. He wants “tariffs” rather than deals when it comes to China, as we’ve learned in recent days. He also sees cracking down on China as key to keeping his “America First” promise to his base.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • ['ru:m?]
  • 《儿童活动场所内墙涂料》广东标准开始制定
  • 美国经济将会表现得更好就算世界上其他地区没能做到

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 中共中央办公厅、国务院办公厅印发《加快推进教育现代化实施方案(2018-2022年)》
  • Household substance abuse
  • 国务院:盘活农村存量建设用地
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

落实物联网概念 打造智能化生活

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 二线楼市排队涨价,这两个城市也要火了
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 智能家居进化论:从“便捷”到“快捷”再到?
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

But now she's using her storybook looks for good, dressing up as the character to entertain children and cheer-up cancer patients.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

British business schools make up ground on their French counterparts in the revamped Financial Times ranking of masters in management degrees.
contribution
“但我让他在碰巧看了一眼报纸时,看到上面一篇文章提醒他吸烟会致癌。
He also has serious thrill issues dude.
n. 飞行员,领航员,引航员
随着中国收紧法规,中国的黄金公司日益期盼进行海外收购。去年,山东黄金矿业股份有限公司(Shandong Gold Mining)同意以9.6亿美元购买巴里克黄金公司(Barrick Gold)持有的阿根廷贝拉德罗(Valedero)金矿50%的股权。
6. “The Martian” With its red-rock buttes and mesas, Ridley Scott’s deeply satisfying space western both draws from an enduring genre and his own Pantheon legacy. (Read the review.)
The study was based on 3,095 questionnaires from 2016 graduates and 1,661 questionnaires from employers across the country.
France, one of the most visited countries in the world, ranks No. 9 overall. It is No. 2 in Cultural Influence and No. 6 in Power.
The consumer price index rose by 1.8 per cent year-on-year in January, from 1.6 per cent in December 2015. However, CPI continues to trail Beijing’s target of “around 3 per cent“.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

南京春节过后仅两家楼盘领销许 房源不足600套

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 据《重庆晨报》报道,经调查后,荣昌警方于4月29日以危害公共安全的罪名逮捕了周某。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • ● “教皇方济各公开宣称支持特朗普”
  • 政策推动居家养老服务网络建设 催热老年家居市场
  • adj. 值得(做)的
  • 让品牌飞 2015中国涂料品牌榜闪亮启动
  • Honda has recalled more than 10 million vehicles in the U.S. to fix a potentially fatal defect in air bags made by Japanese supplier, Takata. The air bag inflators can rupture after a crash and injure occupants with shards of metal. Honda has confirmed three deaths and 48 injuries in connection with such incidents.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 未来房价能否平稳、肉价会大涨? 多部门权威回应
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Yet institutions matter, too, because they set the rules of the game.
  • We were forced to leave our comfort zone but were rewarded with unique experiences, says one graduate.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

北京限竞房成交分化加剧 促销未必奏效

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